Photo source: Kompas Pedia (Web)
R.A Kartini is known as an Indonesian female hero who fought for women's emancipation and gender equality in Indonesia during the Dutch colonial period in Indonesia. He wanted women to have and get a higher education just like men. However, apart from Kartini, there are also female heroes who are brave, tough, persistent, and great in fighting for the independence of the Indonesian nation. Want to know who they are? Check out the following article!
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Also known as Malahayati. She is a female hero from the Sultanate of Aceh. He led the Inong Bale troops (widows of heroes who died in the war against the invaders). Her husband, Admiral Zainal Abidin, died in the battle at Haru Bay against the Portuguese. From there, Malahayati gave a proposal to the Aceh Sultanate to form Inong Bale. His proposal was approved and he was appointed Commander of the Inong Bale Troops with the rank of Admiral. His troops were respected by the invaders because they were known to be brave and tough. Even Cornelis de Houtman died in his hands while fighting against Dutch ships and forts. But in 1615, Malahayati died in a battle against the Portuguese led by Alfonso De Castro. At that time he defended and protected Teluk Krueng Raya from Portuguese attacks.
2. Martha Christina Tiahahu
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This female hero from Maluku is the daughter of Kapitan Paulus Tiahahu. At the age of 17, he had dared to take up arms against the Dutch. In fact, he always encouraged women to help men on the battlefield to fight against the Dutch together. However, when her father was sentenced to death by the Dutch, Martha experienced a decline in physical health and mental disorders. So in the end he was arrested and sentenced to forced labor and taken to Java. While traveling from Maluku to Java, he became ill and refused to be fed or treated. Until finally he died on January 2, 1818, and was buried with a military tribute to the Banda Sea.
3. Nyi Ageng Serang
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His name is Raden Ajeng Kustiyah Wulaningsih Retno Edi who was born in 1752. He is the son of Prince Natapraja who is also a descendant of Sunan Kalijaga. He both fought the invaders with his father and brother named Kyai Ageng Serang. However, his father and brother died in an effort to defend Mangkubumi against Paku Buwono I who was assisted by the Dutch. His enthusiasm and persistence against the Dutch did not stop there. He continued to lead his troops until he was 73 years old. His prowess in formulating war strategies was recognized by Prince Diponegoro. In fact, he was appointed as one of his advisors. At the age of 76, he died of Malaria.
4. Cut Nyak Dien
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He is a fighter from Aceh who has a strong influence on the people of Aceh. Her strong and burning spirit was triggered by her husband, Ibrahim Lamnga, who died while fighting against the Dutch in 1878. But in 1880, Cut Nyak Dien married Teuku Umar. They both have the same determination against the Dutch. But unfortunately in 1899, Cut Nyak Dien had to experience the loss of her husband for the second time on the battlefield. Cut Nyak Dien finally fought alone with his small army against the Dutch. Finally Cut Nyak Dien was arrested by the Dutch and exiled to Sumedang until the end of his life.
5. Cut Meutia
Photo source: Tagar.id (web)
Many strong female fighters come from Earth Aceh, one of which is Cut Meutia. She is also a female hero who fought against the Dutch with her husband, Teuku Muhammad. But in 1905, her husband was arrested by the Dutch and sentenced to death. According to the will left by her husband, she married Pang Nangroe, and continued to fight against the Dutch with the Marechausée Corps. In 1910, Pang Nangroe died in battle, while Cut Meutia managed to escape the Netherlands and fled with the rest of his troops into the forest. On September 24, 1910, Cut Meutia died against the Dutch.
6. Maria Walanda Maramis
Photo source: Journal Telegraf (Web)
This woman is known as Kartini from Minahasa. He really cares about women's education. Because in his time, he also saw that there were still many women who had educational backwardness. He attended the Malay School in Maumbi in North Minahasa for 3 years, and unfortunately could not continue his education to a higher level. This prompted her to establish Percintaan Ibu To Her Son (PIKAT), an organization that aims to promote the education of women. Here the women are taught ranging from household knowledge, cooking, sewing, taking care of babies, etc. He was active in the organization he founded until his death on April 22, 1924.
7. Dewi Sartika
Photo source: Wikipedia (Web)
Just like Kartini and Maria Walanda Maramis, who wanted to advance women in the field of education. In 1904, Raden Dewi Sartika founded a school called Sekolah Isteri on January 16, 1904. In 1920 the school changed its name to Kaoetamaan Isteri. and in 1929, it changed its name again to Raden Dewi School. She was awarded the title of Order van Oranje-Nassau in recognition of her services in the field of women's education.
8. Andi Depu
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Maybe not many people know this brave female hero. He is Andi Depu Maraddia Balanipa, who comes from Tinambung, West Sulawesi. He was known as a persistent fighter against the Dutch for defending his territory from their attacks. Not only that, he also dared to fly the red and white flag when the Japanese arrived in Mandar in 1942. Because of his courage, President Soekarno gave the Mahaputra Star Level IV award. Also, the title of National Hero was given by President Joko Widodo to Andi Depu.
9. Rasuna Said
Photo source: Republika (Web)
Her full name is Hajjah Rangkayo Rasuna Said. She also has the same vision and mission as Kartini, namely gender equality. She argues that the progress of women is not only obtained from education but can also be obtained through political struggle. He was given the Speak Delict law by the Dutch because of his speech that criticized the Dutch at that time. Speak Delict is a Dutch colonial law that was given to people who opposed the Dutch. In 1932 he was arrested by the Dutch with his friend, Rasimah Ismail, and imprisoned in Semarang. After independence, he was appointed to the United Indonesia House of Representatives (DPR RIS). He also served as a member of the Supreme Advisory Council. Rasuna Said died on November 2, 1965, due to blood cancer he suffered.